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# ðŸ“™ Cosmology and Controversy: The Historical Development of Two Theories of the Universe by Helge Kragh â€” free pdf

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For over three millennia, most people could understand the universe only in terms of myth, religion, and philosophy. Between 1920 and 1970, cosmology transformed into a branch of physics. With this remarkably rapid change came a theory that would finally lend empirical support to many long-held beliefs about the origins and development of the entire universe: the theory of the big bang. In this book, Helge Kragh presents the development of scientific cosmology for the first time as a historical event, one that embroiled many famous scientists in a controversy over the very notion of an evolving universe with a beginning in time. In rich detail he examines how the big-bang theory drew inspiration from and eventually triumphed over rival views, mainly the steady-state theory and its concept of a stationary universe of infinite age.
In the 1920s, Alexander Friedmann and Georges LemaÃ®tre showed that Einstein's general relativity equations possessed solutions for a universe expanding in time. Kragh follows the story from here, showing how the big-bang theory evolved, from Edwin Hubble's observation that most galaxies are receding from us, to the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation. Sir Fred Hoyle proposed instead the steady-state theory, a model of dynamic equilibrium involving the continuous creation of matter throughout the universe. Although today it is generally accepted that the universe started some ten billion years ago in a big bang, many readers may not fully realize that this standard view owed much of its formation to the steady-state theory. By exploring the similarities and tensions between the theories, Kragh provides the reader with indispensable background for understanding much of today's commentary about our universe.

## About book:

## About file:

Security code:

- Author:
**Helge Kragh** - Year:
**1996** - Publisher:
**Princeton University Press** - Language:
**English** - ISBN:
**0691026238**

- File size:
**34 594 706** - Format:
**pdf**

Security code:

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Lumion uses real-time 3D technology to provide immediate visualizations and create images in a fraction of a second without the long hours of rendering. With an outstanding collection of high-quality plants, trees, cars, buildings, people, and materials, ...